Programme of PrincipleThe Conservative Party will pursue a conservative policy, aimed at progress and based on Christian cultural values, democracy and the rule of law to promote personal freedom and social responsibility, co-determination and the right of ownership, as well as a commitment to national and international co-operation. The Conservative Party’s view of mankind All people are created different, but inherently and inviolably equal. Given that all people are created equal, regardless of individual attributes, traits and group affiliations, all people have the right to life, to protect their own lives and to be protected. Given that all people are created different, each with his or her own distinctive nature and personal feelings, ideas and preferences, the right to life is also a right to liberty. People are social beings who can realise their potential only through interaction with others. Accordingly, rights only make sense when they are accompanied by the obligation to respect the rights of others. Freedom and responsibility are two sides of the same coin. To promote positive development opportunities, the Conservative Party’s politics are based on faith in people as individuals. The Conservative Party’s view of society Basic human rights can only be realised through a social system based on the rule of law, democracy and freedom of expression. Man’s ability to dispense justice makes democracy possible. Man’s predilection for injustice makes democracy imperative. The State’s exercise of authority presupposes that citizens’ freedom be curtailed only by laws enacted to ensure respect for the rights and freedoms of others. Respect for common rules and the right of the majority to rule are not, in themselves, measures of the quality of democracy. Of equal importance are the majority’s willingness to respect the rights of the minority and to set limits for what should be decided through the political decision-making process. The State exists to serve society-at-large and to protect individuals from injustice. Respect for individuals’ freedom, right of ownership and legal safeguards are important guarantees in this respect. The freedom to believe, think and hold opinions is unlimited. The freedom to pursue happiness, to create, to affiliate with groups, and to express oneself is a basic human right. Such rights must only be limited to the extent to which they are used to infringe upon the freedom of others. Legal rules and the threat of punishment can only set the outside limits for an individual’s exercise of his or her rights. Within these limits, morality must motivate appropriate conduct. The right of private ownership is a prerequisite for personal safety, independence, responsibility and prudent resource management. The Conservative Party will oppose the concentration of political and/or economic power by promoting the development of a democracy based on private ownership which encourages the distribution of property. Legal protection is based on the government treating all citizens equally, and on all people having the right to defend their interests in court, even when the State is the opposing party. It is important not only that the State lays down legal rules to protect freedom with regard to inter-personal relations, but also that the State itself is bound by legislation and rules, and that infringements of such regulations can be tried in a free, independent court of law. Meanwhile, freedom also requires a firm anchorage in something more than fleeting current events, that is, in knowledge as the basis for freedom of choice and as protection from want, crime and external threats. The Conservative Party believes the State bears a responsibility for helping ensure the social imperatives that facilitate freedom. Well-developed democracies exercise their policies through elections in which all citizens have an equal opportunity to exert political influence. The Conservative Party will support reforms which better ensure this. Given that all people are different, relations between individuals and groups may be open to conflicts of interest. Policies are not devised to eliminate conflicts of interest, but to lay down the parameters within which conflicts of interest can be resolved. As a conservative body, it is important for the Conservative Party to strike a balance in the areas of tension between the individual and society, freedom and responsibility, rights and obligations. The Conservative Party’s efforts towards these ends will be based on Christian cultural values, the rule of law, democracy and our common historical legacy. This implies tolerance and respect for man’s inalienable nature and rights, as well as for our shared responsibility for nature and the environment. The Conservative Party will strive to protect the values that have shaped society and culture, based on recognition of the fact that each generation should leave its descendants a spiritual and cultural legacy based on previous generations’ experience and efforts. At the same time, the Conservative Party supports change when it is essential for protecting basic human values. To achieve this, political efforts are necessary, but not sufficient. The influence of policies is limited by conditions outside their control, so policies must be limited to dealing with conditions within their control. Given its conservative view of mankind and society, the Conservative’s Party’s task is to promote respect for others, freedom and anchorage, personal responsibility and shared social responsibility, management responsibility and international co-operation. Respect for others The Conservative Party bases its policies on respect for other individuals’ inviolable value. The right to life is a basic human right. The Conservative Party believes that human life has inviolable value. The value of human life cannot be measured on other scales. Every individual has the right to have his or her life protected by society and other individuals. This means the State cannot sentence a person to death. Nonetheless, capital punishment must remain an option insofar as war crimes are concerned. The right to liberty is also a basic human right. Consideration for protecting human worth and the right to liberty may conflict. As the right to liberty is based on respect for human worth, it cannot entail the freedom to infringe upon human worth. Legislation on questions of medical ethics related to when life begins, is maintained, and ends must be based on these principles. Technological possibilities to intervene in natural biological processes will continue to change constantly, but the Conservative Party is of the opinion that ethics should set the limits for how technology is used, not the other way round. Induced termination of pregnancy is a difficult issue, given the principle regarding the protection of human life. Notwithstanding, the Conservative Party has opted to support women’s right to choose, within the statutory parameters that apply, whether or not a termination should be induced. The State has a responsibility to provide counselling and the support needed to help reduce the number of women who feel induced terminations are necessary. Based on its regard for human worth, the Conservative Party will continuously re-evaluate the limits and rules that apply to legally induced terminations. Given that all human life is of equal value, regardless of individual attributes and qualities, the Conservative Party is of the opinion that legal rules must be formulated to avoid any classification of human life based on attributes. The Conservative Party is against the legalisation of active euthanasia. Society cannot authorise physicians to act in a manner contrary to all medical ethics as defined by the culture in which we live. Nor should it be a public sector responsibility to determine whether a human life lacks meaning or is not worth living. The goal must be to ensure that the care offered at the end of life’s journey is adequate to ensure a sense of security, integrity and community. While genetic and biotechnology research create new opportunities for improving human living conditions, they can also raise new ethical dilemmas. The Conservative Party will apply the “ounce of prevention” principle to the application of genetic and biotechnology research, meaning explicit approval would be required to expand into new areas of activity. Acknowledging how difficult it would be for Norway to prevent methods accepted in other countries, the Conservative Party will work to achieve binding international rules in the fields of gene research and biotechnology. Meanwhile, it is essential that researchers and those who apply research results feel a sense of responsibility and self-imposed justice. The Conservative Party is against opening the door to germ cell therapy, which can alter individuals’ genetic make-up. Respect for diversity All individuals shall be accepted and treated as equal. This equality applies regardless of nationality, gender, age, religion, ethnic affiliation, physical disabilities or sexual preferences. It is crucial that society appreciates individuality and encourages diversity. Attempts to force individuals to conform undermine equality and respect for diversity. Norwegian society is becoming increasingly multi-cultural and pluralistic in terms of values. Norms are changing. There is an emergence of new perceptions of and attitudes towards equal status, different beliefs and sexuality. Along with other cultural influences, immigration has made its mark on Norway as a country which is home to a greater variety of skin colours, languages, religions and ways of life than at any other time in its history. Diversity is not alien or transitory. Norway itself is becoming more diverse. The Conservative Party considers diversity an advantage. A society that respects individuals’ right to live in accordance with their own traditions offers more choices and encourages everyone to take advantage of the opportunities available to them. Assuming we can strike a balance between individual freedom and personal responsibility, diversity will nourish spiritual and material values for society as a whole as well as for individuals. Equality, rather than conformity, is the goal of a society that respects diversity. A demand for conformity can threaten equality and liberty. Financial differences are not a problem per se, but poverty and tendencies to make people social outcasts must be countered by ensuring equal opportunities for all individuals, regardless of social background. Protection of privacy Individuals are entitled to protection of their privacy. The proliferation of new technology entails that the private sphere is growing increasingly transparent and verifiable. It is important to protect the right to privacy with regard to private interests as well as public agencies. No one should be subject to individually-oriented research without the fully informed consent of the individuals themselves or their guardians. Individuals have the right to limit the dissemination of identifiable information about themselves. No one shall have the right to demand certain types of information, e.g. genetic information, unless specifically warranted by law. To safeguard personal integrity, the Conservative Party advocates restrictive practices with respect to electronic registration, linkages and the distribution of personal information. The scope of surveillance should be limited to what can be proved to be absolutely necessary. Freedom and anchorage The Conservative Party will strive to strengthen the social conditions required to ensure freedom and opportunities for individuals. It is a fundamental political task to protect freedom by enacting legal rules, then backing them up with sanctions. To safeguard the rights of the individual, protect life, liberty and property, and facilitate objective conflict resolution, the community must have instruments of power. This power must be strictly controlled, ensure respect for others and seek to safeguard social harmony. A free nation must have the ability to defend its freedom. The Conservative Party sees peace in freedom as decisive for maintaining democracy and the rule of law. The Armed Forces are an insurance policy for Norway, independent of any military threat. The Conservative Party recognises that a military threat can emerge far more quickly than a military organisation can be built up. The Armed Forces’ combat proficiency must be maintained at a level which takes this into account. Individuals are responsible for defending their country against outside threats. Compulsory conscription must be a credible programme, treating all involved parties equally. Crime threatens the social order, safety and harmony of society, and expresses a lack of respect for other people. To protect human life, liberty, good health and property, society must have an effective law enforcement and judicial system. The methods used by the police must reconcile demands for the effective prosecution of criminals with legal protection for the rights of innocent individuals. To reinforce the legal protection afforded to individuals, the Conservative Party advocates placing a limit on the length of time individuals can be placed in remand, and that the remand system be brought into line with international conventions. The present system involving a large number of laymen in the legal system ensures that they make a direct contribution to the development of the legal system and provide a popular foothold for decisions. Accordingly, the Conservative Party supports continued development based on the principles underlying the present system. Independent social institutions A free society requires institutions which are spiritually and intellectually independent. Should their existence be dependent on the State or strong concentrations of power, they could be prevented from exercising their independence and developing freely. Consequently, the Conservative Party recommends that such organisations be made more independent in organisational and financial terms. Knowledge institutions Freedom of choice and action call for information and knowledge about the consequences of our choices. The dissemination of knowledge leads to the dissemination of power in society, resulting in security as well as opportunities for individuals. Knowledge conveys culture and identity, engenders attitudes, and provides spiritual and material nourishment for individuals and society-at-large. The Conservative Party attaches considerable importance to providing all those who live in Norway adequate and equal opportunities to acquire knowledge and education. In a changing society, it is becoming increasingly difficult to predict what type of knowledge we will need in future. This means basic knowledge is becoming increasingly important, and that schools and educational opportunities should be more varied. The Conservative Party favours the application of stringent requirements to the quality of education. The State must respect parental rights. Parents should have a say in their children’s education and the right to choose, along with their children, which schools they will attend. Financial schemes should promote diversity and competition, from primary school through university. In a well-diversified knowledge society, knowledge will be disseminated through many channels other than the public school system, e.g. private educational alternatives, further education, the media, a strong library system and a broad variety of cultural experiences. Research should be independent and not controlled by politics. Politicians must limit their activities to distributing resources and defining the ethical limits to apply to research and the application of research results. It is important to maintain the independence of research institutions and cultural institutions, as well as to contribute to funding opportunities other than public funding. Culture The authorities have a responsibility to support culture and ensure that it is part of the common heritage passed on to coming generations. The Conservative Party applies the classic concept of culture which implies a lasting enlightenment or refinement of values. The Conservative Party recognises the intrinsic value of art, both as an expression of and contribution to creativity and innovation. The framework that surrounds us is also important for generating a sense of community, and high aesthetic and architectural standards should take precedence over short-term financial constraints. It is essential that cultural activities not be unilaterally dependent on the authorities for their funding and terms of work. Access to alternate sources of funding, for example, tax exemptions for donations, could reduce the dependence of cultural activities on the State and enhance the role of culture in society and the social debate. Organisational activities Independent organisations are important, be they employers’ organisations, volunteer organisations for religious or non-profit purposes, or political organisations. The Conservative Party is of the opinion that organisations should be as independent of the State as possible. At the same time, based on the distinctive nature of each organisation, they can help resolve many important common tasks. The tax system should treat organisations equally and encourage voluntary donations. Independent institutions ensure the balance of power and provide valuable correctives to State policies. For its part, the State should become less dependent on organisations and organised special interest groups that tend to fragment overall governance and set aside the interests of weak groups. For the Conservative Party, it is important to limit the power of special interest groups and strengthen the political institutions that bear general overall responsibility. The Conservative Party wishes to reduce special interest groups’ influence on State agencies. Information and the public debate The Conservative Party supports the broadest possible definition of freedom of expression. People should not be punished for their opinions or attitudes. At the same time, no one can demand that society protect their freedom of expression if their expressions entail threats or encourage others to break the law. Where freedom of expression is in any way constrained by Norwegian law, the constraint is motivated by legal protection of the individual. The media must have full editorial freedom and be totally independent of the State. To ensure the role of the media as a corrective in the social debate, the Conservative Party supports strong legal protection of sources. Press subsidies should be abolished. Ethical awareness should first and foremost be handled by the media themselves and their staff members. Public licensing schemes which could impede or limit freedom of expression should be abolished. At the same time, there should be legal rules against the concentration of power insofar as media ownership is concerned. Financial freedom Protection for the right of ownership and free trade in economic goods ensures the welfare of individuals and the affluence of society-at-large. The right of ownership is also important as an incentive for people to take responsibility; having the right to harvest the fruits of one’s own labour is a positive incentive, and being obliged to suffer the consequences if something goes wrong promotes responsible actions. Only special circumstances can justify infringing the right of ownership, for example, through taxation or regulation. One important aspect of a freehold democracy is that anyone who so desires has the right to own his or her own dwelling. A smoothly functioning market is based on voluntariness. The right of private ownership and the market economy have turned out to be prerequisites for the development of democracy and financial communities that engender affluence, diversity and freedom, and for a trend that takes account of the ecological balance and the welfare of future generations. Just as the long-term stability and welfare of society depend on the market economy, the market economy is dependent on a state governed by the rule of law, with well-developed institutions and high moral standards. The market economy has its limitations. It is not able to produce common benefits where there is little individual willingness to pay for them, or to manage natural resources for which there is no individual right of ownership, or to achieve distribution policy goals where people lack the ability to pay. Accordingly, is a political task to ensure the right of ownership, the right to establish businesses and equal competitive terms, to intervene against private and public monopolies, to protect nature and consumers, to monitor the use of common resources and to protect public distribution policy. The public sector bears responsibility for funding requisite benefits which the market does not handle, but performance of these duties should be left to the private sector insofar as possible. Public and private sector activities should have equal working conditions. The public sector collects taxes to perform certain duties for the common good. Accordingly, the Conservative Party is of the opinion that it is incumbent upon the public sector to ensure that the services offered are of high quality, and have been procured in the most cost-efficient manner possible. The Conservative Party believes it is right to reduce the public sector’s share of the economy. To accomplish this, the Conservative Party feels the State should not be involved in commercial interests or manufacturing, where it is possible to create a smoothly functioning market without State involvement. The Conservative Party would also like to see Norwegian business and industry be as independent as possible of direct and indirect public subsidies, and to allow production costs, including environmental costs, to be reflected in the market value of production inputs insofar as possible. Labour law and income determination must be flexible. Wealth creation Human efforts and imagination engender affluence. It is not possible to create wealth simply by resolving to do so. It is, however, possible to facilitate it or to squelch it. Thus the goal of politics in relation to the market is to help provide stable general conditions to promote equal opportunities. Man has the right to control his own labour. Work provides an independent and secure basis for personal development and freedom of action. The state’s responsibility is to pursue a policy that stimulates the creation of profitable jobs. The objective of the tax system is to ensure the revenues required to run the public sector, so the system should be as simple and fair as possible. The level of taxation should be as high as necessary and as low as possible. A low burden of taxation promotes initiatives and innovation, and enhances people’s opportunities to support themselves. Technology is developing at an ever increasing pace. Generally speaking, this opens up new possibilities for the treatment of disease and injuries, provides new products to make life easier, and increases affluence. Yet progress also presents new ethical and moral challenges in relation to the application of technology. The Conservative Party wants Norway to be at the forefront of technological development, and to take advantage of the opportunities this offers for enhancing social welfare through wealth creation, within reasonable ethical parameters. The Conservative Party has a fundamentally positive outlook, welcoming innovation and development. Personal responsibility and shared social responsibility The Conservative Party will promote personal responsibility, self-sufficiency and shared social responsibility. The Conservative Party is of the opinion that self-sufficient, independent individuals are best able to take responsibility for themselves and others. Taking responsibility for one’s own life facilitates a sense of responsibility for the lives of others, and respect for all life. The Conservative Party believes that all individuals bear an independent responsibility for their own lives and should not blame others for choices they themselves make. The Conservative Party feels that allowing the authorities to take over tasks that are a natural part of an individual’s personal responsibilities could reduce people’s sense of responsibility and result in less personal initiative and security. Every individual is responsible for taking advantage of the opportunities available to him or her. Everyone should treat others with respect, and is obligated to react in the event someone violates the rights of those not able to defend themselves. It is a personal responsibility to act in a manner that does not destroy the trust which exists between individuals in a democratic society. This may entail acting in a manner that runs counter to one’s own short-term interests in order to serve more long-term common interests. Family and fellowship People have a natural sense of belonging and adherence to their origins, their family, voluntary fellowship and association with others, and the common cultural heritage and legacy of knowledge. The individual has the right to protect him- or herself and this adherence. Even though family patterns and other forms of cohabitation are in a constant state of flux, the Conservative Party is of the opinion that the family – as a framework for children’s early years – constitutes the most important unit in society. The family provides the basic parameters for development into maturity, and for an individual’s ability to care for him/herself and others. The family is where individuals first contribute to shaping their own happiness and that of others, and this is where they first encounter trials and tribulations which must be faced. Accordingly, it is in the interest of the individual and society that families maintain their strength and stability – human, moral, social and financial. It is the view of the Conservative Party that the family constitutes a private sphere in which politics clearly has its limitations. To provide stability and a safe atmosphere for raising children, it is important to encourage the formalisation of commitments. The Conservative Party feels that marriage provides such a secure framework for life together in a family setting, and therefore places marriage in a unique legal and financial position. Partnership is based on the same values as marriage; the willingness to undertake mutual commitments. In co-habitation relationships, the parties themselves are responsible for signing agreements that protect them and any children they might have in the event of a family break-up or death. Adoption legislation must first and foremost protect children’s best interests. No one has the right to have children, but children have the right to have parents. Everyone should have the opportunity to know their origins. The Conservative Party favours the abolition of schemes that make it impossible to identify biological parents. Shared social responsibility People bear a moral responsibility to care about others. This responsibility begins at home, with the care and respect we show for others, but it is also part of our responsibility for the common good. Welfare policy must be targeted, providing goal-oriented help where it is needed most. If the authorities undertake too many responsibilities, they will not be able to handle those responsibilities which only the State is able to undertake. The State shall play a part when the individual or family are not in a position to ensure their own welfare, but the State is not to provide welfare benefits we can generate ourselves. A smoothly functioning community of citizens provides the building blocks required for the activities of the State. There should be freedom from want in contemporary Norwegian society. Accordingly, the Conservative Party favours schemes which ensure access to basic social benefits for all those who require them. Society should also require return services from those able to provide them. The public sector is responsible for ensuring medical treatment for people who require it. Health services must be organised so that everyone has access to high-quality medical assistance, regardless of the state of their personal finances. Policies must be formulated to ensure that individuals also take personal responsibility for their own health. Care for the elderly must have differentiated levels of services and care, and there must be latitude for private services. The Conservative Party believes that respect for the individual dictates that old age not be equated with illness. Senior citizens are not a homogeneous group. People should not have to surrender their dignity even though they gradually require more assistance. Senior citizens should not be relieved of responsibility for spending their housing capital on a dwelling specially adapted for old age. The Conservative Party would like to see more flexible systems linked to retirement age, for example. The Conservative Party wants to abolish general age limits, but retain an individual’s right to retire once he or she has fulfilled the minimum age and years of service requirements. Who it is that provides assistance is not a matter of principle, but it is a matter of principle that anyone in need of help should get the right quality of assistance at the right time. Accordingly, the Conservative Party supports the use of competition to determine who is best able to provide assistance. The public sector’s responsibility is to ensure access to and the financing of services, to assure the quality of services, and to ensure that that quality measures up. The Conservative Party wants to reform the State distribution policy by increasing the use of price-setting for public services, and ensuring more goal-oriented transfers and excess schemes, in addition to cash subsidies paid to individuals and families. Our welfare and economy also depend on a smoothly functioning public sector. The Conservative Party wants to reduce State bureaucracy by reducing the number of civil servants who do not provide services directly to individuals. Local elected bodies must be given the freedom to organise their own activities, at the same time as the State’s activities at the local level should be reduced. The Conservative Party supports the idea that decisions should be taken as close to local inhabitants as possible. The Conservative Party favours strengthening local autonomy, moving power from central to local governing bodies, and introducing schemes to enhance users’ opportunities to influence public services. Management responsibility The Conservative Party takes responsibility for ensuring that coming generations inherit a society that offers opportunities at least equal to those we enjoy today. The Conservative Party attaches importance to ensuring continuity between the past and the future. Each and every one of us is a link between our forefathers and our children. Being in charge reminds us that our own generation is only borrowing the world, and that we are responsible for ensuring that coming generations enjoy opportunities at least equal to those we ourselves enjoy for developing society according to their convictions. View of mankind We are responsible for encouraging attitudes to man that support the dignity of individuals. This implies respect for life, for the distinctive nature of individuals, and for the diversity of society. Culture The Conservative Party attaches importance to the intrinsic value of culture as a stimulus for man’s creative and pioneering qualities. Meanwhile, the preservation and development of national institutions, traditions and hereditary customs and practices provide a necessary foothold and promote a sense of security in people’s lives. The Conservative Party attaches importance to managing and further improving Norway’s cultural legacy by preserving cultural expressions of lasting value. The two variants of written Norwegian and Sami represent a valuable cultural legacy which is important to protect and develop further . The environment and resources The Conservative Party believes that global environmental problems and poverty are the greatest challenges of our times. It is imperative to strike a balance between the use and renewal of the earth’s resources if nature and mankind are to survive. Economic growth must take place within the limits of nature’s tolerances. The Conservative Party favours healthy economic growth, based on more prudent use of the resources at hand, the removal of trade barriers, and an international division of labour, knowledge and new technology. Anthropogenic influences on the environment extend across national borders and beyond the present. The Conservative Party will therefore actively promote binding international environmental protection activities. The Conservative Party will place environmental measures in a global perspective, where consideration for coming generations is as important as consideration for those who are alive today. The Conservative Party supports national and international environmental planning efforts characterised by long-term thinking, with specifically formulated goals. The protection of jobs today cannot take precedence over long-term consideration for a balanced environment. In the long term, wealth creation depends on a sustainable environment. It is often difficult to predict the long-term consequences of pollution and encroachments on the natural environment. To protect biological diversity, the Conservative Party will strive to promote systematic protection of endangered species of plants and animals. The Conservative Party recommends exercising caution with regard to undertaking irreversible encroachments on the natural environment. The Conservative Party will employ the market in the service of the environment and put the polluter pays principle into practice. Green taxes help drive consumption and production in a more environment-friendly direction. The Conservative Party believes Norway should be a motive force on international environmental issues. Economics and welfare The Conservative Party will strive to promote an economic policy which is stable and predictable, and which does not postpone problems for future generations to deal with. Accordingly, Norway’s economy must be made less dependent on petroleum revenues. The national insurance system should be reformed to ensure the welfare of future generations, predictability and long-term economic stability. Everyone should be guaranteed a basic old-age pension, regardless of what they have paid into the system, and all accrued rights must be protected. International co-operation The Conservative Party will work to promote international peace in freedom, respect for human rights, a sustainable environment and equal opportunities to achieve prosperity. The international community is dependent on states that administer their sovereignty responsibly. Meanwhile, the international community differs from national communities in that it does not have the same remedies at hand to initiate sanctions to protect life, liberty and dignity. This makes the world community vulnerable. As a result, it is essential to combine respect for the individuality of each nation with binding international co-operation. Mutual dependence among nations engenders respect for common values such as human life, liberty, democracy and the market economy. As common cultures and history often extend across today’s national borders, international co-operation can make it easier for some people to practice their own culture, history and religion, enhancing their basic values and sense of identity. The fact that technology ties people and states increasingly closer together reinforces the need for common cross-border rules where the nation-state is no longer sufficient. Internationalisation can also make it easier to find common solutions to problems. Globalisation ties individuals, organisations and enterprises more closely together. People exchange ideas, perceptions and experiences, developing respect for different values across national frontiers. This reduces states’ opportunity to restrict or interpret information. The Conservative Party favours the development of cultural diversity and personal freedom. The Conservative Party believes voluntary organisations should be able to operate as freely as possible in and between countries the world over, encouraging the freest possible movement of capital and information within the framework of democracy and respect for life and liberty. Respect for values and traditions permeates the Conservative Party’s attitude to states with different cultural backgrounds and values. Although far-reaching reforms are called for in many countries, they must evolve from inhabitants’ own recognition of the need for change. The Conservative Party values respect for democracy, human rights and human worth more highly. This means that consideration for national sovereignty should not prevent the international community from intervening in political systems that grossly violate basic human rights. When a country develops a dictatorship, Norway’s humanitarian obligations must be with the country’s inhabitants, not with its government or those in power. Independent of the behaviour of a state, each individual among us bears a moral responsibility – even for factors outside the borders of his or her own country. The Conservative Party is of the opinion that Norway shares responsibility for those forced to flee their countries for political reasons. Accordingly, Norway should admit enough refugees to fulfil its international commitments. Given that all people are created equal, the ideal situation would be the free movement of people across national frontiers. However, as mobility across national frontiers is large and unpredictable, it is difficult for one country to pursue an immigration policy which differs significantly from that of neighbouring countries. The Conservative Party favours an immigration policy which promotes the free movement of people based first and foremost on individuals’ potential for supporting themselves and their families. Co-operation To a great extent, Europe shares common basic values and common democratic, economic and cultural traditions. In this part of the world, it is therefore natural to strive for the closest possible co-operation when seeking to preserve values and traditions. Norway should work to ensure co-determination and shoulder its full share of responsibility for co-operation in Europe. The Conservative Party views Norwegian membership of the European Union as a natural consequence of this attitude. The Conservative Party places clear limitations on the development of supranational power structures. It is important that supranational structures help increase individuals’ freedom, and limit, but also increase the efficiency of, political control. Supranational structures should only be empowered to resolve tasks which the individual, lesser common units or the market cannot resolve more effectively on their own. The Conservative Party favours the principle of subsidiarity as the basis for political decisions. The Conservative Party is of the opinion that the same standards should apply to predictability, transparency and the opportunity for validation in international co-operative bodies as in national bodies. Economics The Conservative Party considers trade and economic growth to be a means to achieve peace and development because they link the interests of individuals and nations more closely together. This creates common interests where there once was conflict. The Conservative Party is convinced that today’s international market economy is the most effective economic system in existence. Developed and developing countries alike are served by maintaining the most open international economy possible. Further, the Conservative Party believes it is important to share expertise and technology with developing countries. As a result, the Conservative Party supports the most open world trade possible, based on common international rules which afford equal opportunities to all countries. At the same time, the globalised economy raises the need for co-operation schemes that counteract dramatic market fluctuations. The Conservative Party believes Norway has an obligation to promote democratic and economic systems that protect basic human rights and sustainable development. At the same time, the Conservative Party believes Norway has a moral obligation to co-operate, provide assistance and encourage free trade to promote development in countries that do not enjoy the same standard of living as we have in this country. More equal opportunities to achieve prosperity throughout the world would give people in developing countries more freedom, at the same time as it would enhance security and stability the world over. Security International co-operation helps protect the security of each individual nation-state by strengthening mutual contact, dependence and understanding among states. In turn, economic co-operation paves the way for security policy co-operation. The mutual dependence of EU countries helps preserve peace in Europe. Thus the integration process in Europe represents a significant deterrent to the re-awakening of old rivalries. Efforts to guarantee Norway’s security by participating in a co-operative international military organisation entail protection against attacks on the basic values of our society. Such participation also entails a commitment to those who will lead our democratic society in future, and contributes to the international balance of power and stability. Attention must be devoted to trans-Atlantic security policy co-operation. Norway’s willingness to take part in mutually binding military alliances should be independent of short-term changes in the threats facing us. The Conservative Party advocates Norwegian participation in developing common European defence and security policy. The Armed Forces must have a form, and the technology and expertise needed to protect Norway’s national security and to fulfil Norway’s international commitments. The Conservative Party wants Norway to help reinforce and further develop the authority of the United Nations, and that organisation’s peacekeeping and peacemaking activities. As long as a large part of the world currently operates under cultural, political and economic systems that run counter to important aspects of our value system, we must be prepared for this process to take a long time and call for considerable patience. Respect for human life, liberty and dignity is universal. The protection of these values is the goal of the Conservative Party’s politics at the international as well as the national level.